By Donald J. Hanahan
This ebook presents a concise advent to phospholipid chemistry and is meant for a large viewers of biologists, biochemists, and graduate scholars. constructed as a part of a graduate direction on lipids, this e-book additionally serves as a reference for laboratory investigators on sign transduction and organic membranes. the 1st a part of the textual content is dedicated to an orientation to the chemical nature of lipids typically, how they're regarded as linked within the telephone, and the method during which the mobile lipids (including the phospholipids) will be recovered from cells and subjected to an preliminary identity. next chapters signify the choline-containing phospholipids, together with the sphingolipids, the non-choline containing phospholipids, and eventually, the so-called minor phospholipids. The latter compounds, which act as agonists or lipid chemical mediators on cells, shape a forefront of a brand new classification of biologically energetic ingredients and feature set the research of mobile phospholipids on a brand new and exiting direction. most significantly, this publication presents a foundation for extra inquiry on those complex molecules, exhibiting that even supposing the compounds are designated, with care and figuring out, they are often studied conveniently
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Additional resources for A Guide to Phospholipid Chemistry
Essentially in this wash procedure, a chloroform-methanol solution of lipid is mixed with an aqueous salt solution in a ratio calculated to give two phases: The upper, water-soluble phase would contain the contaminants, while the lower phase would contain the desired lipid components. This was a useful procedure at the time and worked quite well for removal of most, if not all, impurities. Perhaps its greatest drawback centered on the formation of rather intractable emulsions which often prove frustrating to handle and also lead to losses of lipids.
The following diagram reemphasizes several, but not all, possible reaction pathways that can be invoked during an agonist (stimulus)-induced activation of a cell and gives the possible sequelae: 25 26 A GUIDE TO PHOSPHOLIP1D CHEMISTRY In each of the above reactions, the substrates phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate normally are considered biologically inactive in membranes. Then, subsequent to activation of cellular phospholipases by a stimulus, biologically active products are formed from these compounds.
Polarization Forces These very weak forces arise by virtue of the polarization of a molecule by the charge or permanent electric moment on an adjacent molecule. In addition, polar bonds may result in bonds between atoms of greatly different electronegativity in which the shared pair of electrons are distorted from a symmetrical distribution. These "induction" forces, though of low energy, are of some import in the binding of lipids and proteins. FIGURE 2-1. An illustration of the interaction via polarization forces between membrane phospholipid and peptide.
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