By Laura Mitchell

This e-book presents a concise, yet finished, creation to scientific orthodontics. it's designed to entice either undergraduate dental scholars and the working towards dentist, and it really is either easy-to-read and completely illustrated.

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Odontoblastic processes may also be cut during the preparation which may lead to subsequent irreversible damage to the pulp. Frictional heat The heat generated during tooth preparation for a restoration may cause irreversible damage to the pulp. The trauma damages the adjacent odontoblast layer and these cells can be sucked into their respective tubules. This is termed odontoblast aspiration and results in death of the cells and formation of a dead tract. These tracts are more susceptible to bacterial invasion as there is no protective outflow of tissue fluid or ability of the pulp tissue adjacent to the damaged area to form tertiary dentine quickly enough to prevent further damage to the pulp from the bacterial invasion.

Periodontal treatment of multirooted teeth. Results after 5 years. J. Clin. Periodontol. 2, 126–135. 31 Chapter |3| Endodontic problems in advanced operative dentistry William Saunders CHAPTER CONTENTS Endodontic health General anatomical and physiological considerations The dentine pulp complex Nerves in the pulp Pulp vasculature Pulpal defence mechanisms The effect of restorative procedures on the dental pulp Health of the pulp Preparation of the tooth Frictional heat The effects of local anaesthetic The effects of dental materials on the dental pulp Crown cementation Marginal microleakage Diagnosing the state of the dental pulp Testing pulp sensitivity 33 33 33 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 38 38 Reliability of sensitivity testing 38 Tests using heat 39 Tests using cold 39 Electrical testing The use of radiographs Linking symptoms to pulpal status 39 40 40 Sharp pain 40 Lingering pain 40 Treatment for pulpal inflammation Assessing teeth with pulp and periradicular disease © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Dent. Assoc. 66, 594–597. , 2004. Periodontal diagnosis in young patients. F. ), Periodontal management of children, adolescents and young adults. Quintessence Publishing, London, pp. 86–89. , 1975. Periodontal treatment of multirooted teeth. Results after 5 years. J. Clin. Periodontol. 2, 126–135. 31 Chapter |3| Endodontic problems in advanced operative dentistry William Saunders CHAPTER CONTENTS Endodontic health General anatomical and physiological considerations The dentine pulp complex Nerves in the pulp Pulp vasculature Pulpal defence mechanisms The effect of restorative procedures on the dental pulp Health of the pulp Preparation of the tooth Frictional heat The effects of local anaesthetic The effects of dental materials on the dental pulp Crown cementation Marginal microleakage Diagnosing the state of the dental pulp Testing pulp sensitivity 33 33 33 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 38 38 Reliability of sensitivity testing 38 Tests using heat 39 Tests using cold 39 Electrical testing The use of radiographs Linking symptoms to pulpal status 39 40 40 Sharp pain 40 Lingering pain 40 Treatment for pulpal inflammation Assessing teeth with pulp and periradicular disease © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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An Introduction to Orthodontics by Laura Mitchell
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