By Stanley G. Clarke, Evan Simpson

This quantity files a stream from idea and ideas in ethics to an account of morality in keeping with neighborhood perform and conception of the actual case. The creation lays the basis for this place, then the authors draw from the analytic culture as they forcefully argue opposed to concept derived from varied philosophical ancestors. within the moment part they learn ethical conservatism, displaying how putting ethical perform as basic doesn't limit one to any kind of political conservatism.

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56 The “factual transformation of the whole society into a laboring society” permeates human existence with a naturelike necessity and sameness. 57 Such are the vast and disturbing consequences Arendt sees flowing from homo faber’s unlimited instrumentalism. The recovery of the distinction between praxis and poixsis is clearly essential to delimiting a public realm distinct from the state and the economy, and to preserving a space for freedom and the expression of plurality. I should add that the praxis/poixsis distinction is important not simply because it enables us to distinguish “communicative” from “purposive-rational” action, as Habermas suggests; rather, its real significance is that it reminds us that action and plurality have intrinsic value; that freedom resides in the self-containedness of action.

84 Such needs are urgent, undeniable, necessary: the attempt to meet them through politi- 30 • C H A P T E R 1 • cal means inevitably produces terror; because while politics can “transcend” nature, it cannot overcome it. As Arendt notes, “It was necessity . . ” Arendt’s judgments on this issue seem exceptionally severe, bordering on the reactionary. Does she not realize that political freedom is meaningless where humanity remains enslaved to nature? 85 Her point is that so long as biological necessity forms an irreducible dimension of the human condition, freedom is possible only through the strict separation of activities relating to the life process and those relating to politics.

The political association makes it possible by endowing its members with freedom and equality. Liberated from direct concern with the problems of life maintenance, citizens (the heads of households) are free to devote themselves to the pursuit and preservation of virtue in their community. 10 An individual must have daily contact with fellow citizens concerning matters of a more than instrumental significance if he is to develop his potential for reasoned speech and his sense of justice. It is precisely in political interaction that the capacity for choice, judgment, and action is fully exercised, and that freedom is concretely realized.

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Anti-Theory in Ethics and Moral Conservatism by Stanley G. Clarke, Evan Simpson
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